Chief among them are the ways that women's bodies are different from men's. Sharing a needle one single time with an HIV-infected drug user can carry an HIV risk of 63 in 10,000 or 0.63 percent, which can also be stated as 1 in 149. You can read more about this study in our news report. Antiretroviral drugs used by a person who does not have HIV to be taken before possible exposure to HIV in order to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV infection. The per-exposure measure of risk may cause activities to seem less risky. The likelihood of HIV transmission goes down by 70% when condoms are used. Have sex with an HIV-positive person when you have a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Here Dr. Harfouch explains the different ways people can get HIV, provides stats about the relative risk of each behavior, and discusses measures people can take that can dramatically lower the odds of transmission. 92.5% (9 in 10) a key factor determining the risk of transmission is the amount of virus in body fluids, which is known as viral load. James Myhre is an American journalist and HIV educator. Its best to assume that you could get an STD from any type of sexual contact, which is true. What is the per-sexual act probability of acquiring HIV from an infected partner? Men also may engage in more risky behaviors. Pretty LA, Anderson GS, Sweet DJ. Registered charity, number: 1011220, The latest news and research on the biology of HIV transmission, Estimates range from 0.00% to 0.04% (1 in 2500). The numbers in this table are calculated based on the chance of transmission without protection and the 70% reduction in HIV transmission with condom use. HIV basics U.S. statistics. The higher somebodys viral load, the higher their chances of passing HIV to another person. They comparevaginal, anal, and oral sex. Talk to your doctor or another member of your healthcare team for advice tailored to your situation. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). For one, getting HIV from one exposure is . You can have a duo / combo at 4 weeks post exposure and have a antibody test at 3 months to make it conclusive. Male condoms are estimated to be90 percent effectivein reducing HIV transmission, according to USAID, and female condoms, also known as dental dams (thin pieces of latex that can be placed over the vagina or anus), can reduce HIV transmission risk by 94 percent. You might be surprised at the apparently low figures that constitute 'high risk' activities. You can read more about this study in our news report. Even from having unprotected sexual intercourse one time, you have about a 30 percentchance of getting gonorrhea, chlamydia or syphilis from someone whos infected. Some men are far more likely to get HIV than other men are. The following are the most common ways its transmitted. Female-to-male transmission is 0.04% per act or, in theory. STDs and HIV CDC fact sheet. It would be great to know how many times it takes to get hiv, but unfortunately, there is no guarantee that even with a risk of less than 1%, that. When a man has sex without a condom with an HIV-positive woman, Langerhans cells work to transport the virus to CD4 T-cells to have it destroyed. Our experts continually monitor the health and wellness space, and we update our articles when new information becomes available. HIV tests cant immediately detect infection. Another factor that would increase the risk of sexual transmission is the HIV-negative person having an STI (genital ulcer disease). Receptive anal sex (receiving a penis into the rectum) is 13 times riskier than insertive anal sex (inserting the penis into the anus). Its simply something that could impact your health in a negative way, especially if it goes untreated. For a partner of unknown status, the risk is affected by the prevalence of HIV in the relevant community i.e. When a person doesn't use a condom during sex, it's easier for semen, vaginal fluids, blood, and anal. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Company limited by guarantee. If you're worried about HIV infection, you may wonder whether it's safe to have oral sex. Bacterial vaginosis associated with increased risk of female-to-male HIV-1 transmission: A prospective cohort analysis among African couples. Condoms can also lower the risk of transmitting not only HIV but other sexually transmitted diseases, including syphilis, herpes,gonorrhea, andchlamydia. It would be great to know how many times it takes to get HIV, but unfortunately, there is no guarantee that even with a risk of less than 1%, that someone will not get HIV from one encounter. Its possible to get an STD of the mouth or throat from oral sex or to spread an STD from the mouth or throat to the genitals, rectum or anus, but it depends on the type of STD as to how it can spread and where in your body you can get it. Some exposures to HIV carry a much higher risk of transmission than other exposures. Anal sex is the form of sex most likely to spread HIV. Youre at a higher HIV risk if you have: The kind of sex you have makes a difference in your risk, too: While there are only a few studies that have looked at it, it appears theres little risk of getting HIV from oral sex. Aa. Patel P, et al. We work to change lives by sharing information about HIV & AIDS. Condoms dont help as much for herpes as they do for STDs that only pass through bodily fluids because you can get herpes through skin contact. This risk may be higher depending on certain factors, such as whether the woman is having her period or whether the man is uncircumcised, and it . When you have sex, you exchange body fluids with your partner. The behaviors that lead to an STI infection, such as sex with many partners, unprotected sex, or sex with partners you dont know, are the same behaviors that increase your risk of HIV. Repeated exposures potentially increase the risk. As mentioned above, the odds of getting gonorrhea from one unprotected encounter are about 30 percent. People can also transmit HIV to their babies during pregnancy or while breastfeeding. Rodger AJ et al. Its important to note that people who have undetectable levels of HIV cannot transmit HIV through any of the above methods (sex without a barrier method, needles, pregnancy). Verywell Health articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and healthcare professionals. by Dr. Sanjiv Khanse | Diseases and Conditions. For the medication to work as effectively as possible, you will want to start it within 72 hours of exposure the sooner, the better and take it as prescribed for 28 days. Its important to find out if you have an STD so you can be treated. Its even safer if you use a dental dam (latex or polyurethane sheets between the mouth and vagina/anus) or a male or female condom. But what might a more science-based approach look like? Rodger A et al. While it's not risk-free, the chances of spreading the virus that causes AIDS are very low, especially if you take the right precautions. Its important to get tested if you think you may have been exposed to HIV so you can start treatment as soon as possible. i currently feel very lethargic. Yet it still presents a risk to both partners, with that risk being greater for women than it is for men. People who inject drugs are at high risk of getting HIV if they use and share needles, syringes, or other drug injection equipment (for example, cookers) that someone with HIV has also used, according to theCDC. In general, the risk of a man getting HIV from an HIV-positive woman during vaginal intercourse in the United States is low probably less than 1 of 1,000 exposures will result in actual infection. JAMA, 316: 171-181, 2016. Viral load is a measure of how much of a virus is in a persons blood. .. Next time try to have safe sex using condoms.. You expose yourself to infection from the blood or fluid left in the syringe. Receptive vaginal sex is riskier for the woman than insertive vaginal sex by the man. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. These figures assume an HIV-positive partner. You can learn more about how we ensure our content is accurate and current by reading our. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001251, Prodger JL, Kaul R. The biology of how circumcision reduces HIV susceptibility: broader implications for the prevention field. The risk from receptive vaginal sex is about twice as high as that of insertive vaginal sex. The partner you get an STI from may be having risky sex, raising your chances of getting HIV. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 68: 337-44, 2015. Bodily fluids carrying the virus can enter the insertive person through the urethra (the opening at the tip of the penis) or any cuts or sores on the penis. Water- or silicone-based lubricants can help lessen the chance that the condom will break. 35 means we can empower more people living with HIV to challenge stigma with our information workshops, videos and broadcasts. These include genital or mouth sores, poor oral health or being exposed to pre-ejaculate or ejaculate of an infected person. HIV can progress into AIDS if left untreated. For men, it's 1 in 2,500 in high-income countries and 1 in 263 in low-income countries. The risk of acquiring HIV this way is estimated to be .6 percent, says Harfouch. the chance that the partner does in fact have HIV. For condoms to be effective, you need to use them correctly, use them every time and use latex or polyurethane condoms without oil-based lubricants that could reduce their integrity. A woman is the receiving partner of fluids that are more likely to cause infection. Scientists continue to investigate this question, among themOmar Harfouch, MD, MPH, a physician and researcher who specializes in HIV treatment and prevention at the Institute of Human Virology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore. (2018). Healthline has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations. The surface area of these vaginal tissues is far greater than that of the urethra, the thin tube that runs through the penis and connects to the bladder. Too many people living with HIV in the U.S. dont know it. Correct condom use and, in some cases, HIV treatment drugs can prevent transmission during vaginal sex. There are a number of risk factors shared by both partners. It also receives fluids that may carry HIV infection during vaginal sex. Open sores or inflammation caused by STIs let the virus enter your body when you have sex with someone who is HIV-positive. Cookies used to enable you to share pages and content that you find interesting on CDC.gov through third party social networking and other websites. A healthy sex life is possible when both partners take the proper precautions. One in two people who are engaging in sexual activitycontract a sexually transmitted infectionby the age of 25. Boily MC et al. You might wonder whether its really such a big deal to have unprotected sexual contact. Herpes can spread back and forth between the lips, mouth and throat to the genitals, anus, rectum or buttocks. Insertive vaginal sex A woman living with HIV can transmit the virus to a male partner through vaginal fluid and blood, which may pass through the urethra (the opening at the tip of the penis), the foreskin (if the man isnt circumcised), or any open sores on the penis. When looking at the table below, it is worth bearing in mind that the available figures are not always directly comparable. Whats the Risk of HIV Transmission? This is due to several factors, including vulnerabilities that place women (and some men) at greater risk than others. These medical reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. This page therefore lists a number of estimates (or guesstimates) of the likelihood of infection per exposure for specific activities and incidents. According to CDC, for the passive partner in receptive anal sex, the risk is 138 per 10,000 exposures or 1.38 percent. It doesn't consider how these factors cause HIV infection risk to be much higher than it is for other people. Lancet Global Health, 7: e436-47, 2019. You can read more about this study in our news report. You can read more about this study in our news report. Categories like 'high risk' and 'low risk' can be perceived as evasive, unhelpful and frustrating for people in search of precise, numeric answers. You could also have an STD that shows itself both on the mouth/throat area and the genital area. Dr. David Mcadams answered. It can trigger significant, permanent damages to a females reproductive system. CDC mentions as low the chances of getting HIV from one act of oral sex. Possible but low: Chance of heterosexual HIV transmission is generally low as demonstrated in many studies. A report by the Black AIDS Institute states that African-American same-gender-loving men have a 25 percent chance (which is one in four odds) of contracting HIV by the time they're 25 years oldand a 60 percent chance by the time they're 40. AIDS 23: 243-52, 2009. But risks do add up over time. If you plan to take this drug, you will need to see how long to take it before it becomes effective. It was and is very difficult to get accurate numbers. Certain estimates, however, put the risk as high as 2.4%. Chou R et al. You have much higher odds of getting HIV from a blood transfusion than from unprotected sex. James Myhre is an American journalist and HIV educator. In other words, there may be a relatively small chance of acquiring HIV when engaging in a risk behavior with an infected partner only once; but, if repeated many times, the overall likelihood of becoming infected after repeated exposures is actually much higher. Youre especially at risk when you are the receiver (penis put into your rectum). Anal sex and the risk of HIV transmission, Vaginal sex and the risk of HIV transmission, Oral sex and the risk of HIV transmission, Exposure to HIV through medical procedures, Needlestick injuries, discarded needles and the risk of HIV transmission, Matthew Hodson talks about HIV transmission, Undetectable viral load & treatment as prevention, More confidence on zero risk: still no transmissions seen from people with an undetectable viral load in PARTNER study, Zero transmissions mean zero risk PARTNER 2 study results announced, Heterosexual HIV transmission more likely with sexually transmitted infections, early or late stage disease, no circumcision, or anal sex, Oral sex risk very low, but not zero, concludes systematic review, Pregnancy and childbirth, no preventative measures, Pregnancy and childbirth, undetectable viral load, Blood transfusion with contaminated blood, Circumcision in HIV-negative heterosexual men, Circumcision in HIV-negative men who have sex with men. Much of the reason that HIV infection risk is greater for women is due to anatomy. No matter how you assess the odds of a potential HIV exposure leading to infection, take steps to protect yourself, says Harfouch. An undetectable viral load is the first goal of antiretroviral therapy. A historical overview of the AIDS pandemic from the first human case to the present. The risk of HIV infection is almost 18 times greater with anal sex than it is for vaginal sex. The following facts tell you the amount of risk of getting HIV from vaginal sex, anal sex, and from oral sex for both the active partner and the passive partner. A woman is more likely to get HIV from her first sexual encounter with a man than her male partner is. This risk can vary based on gender, the viral load of the HIV-positive partner, and even the part of the world you live in. 2012;9(6):e1001251. Estimating per-act HIV transmission risk: A systematic review. 2005-2023 Healthline Media a Red Ventures Company. Why Is Access So Inequitable? There are three types of tests used to diagnose HIV: HIV tests are only accurate once a certain number of days have passed after exposure. If you dont currently have HIV, you can prevent your chances of infection by: If you do have HIV, you can prevent transmitting it to others by: Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a drug that reduces your chance of developing HIV from sexual activity by about 99 percent and from injected drugs by about 74 percent when used as prescribed. A partner who is high-risk or already has HIV, Sex with someone who has many sex partners. While it wont necessarily happen, it only takes one time coming in contact with an infected person to acquire a sexually transmitted disease. That may seem low, but these statistics do not reflect the reality that having vaginal sex without protection, even once, can lead to HIV infection. For this reason, the chances of HIV infection are much higher in women. For example, the uncircumcised penis still has a foreskin that's intact. Sterile needles and syringes In addition to taking PrEP, people who inject drugs can lower their HIV risk by only using sterile needles and syringes. HIV can also spread through oral sex. i also have had hsv2 for years? In this section, risk figures are expressed asper exposureestimates. Keep reading as we take a look at these factors and what you should do if you think youve been exposed. Pre-exposure medication If youre at a very high risk of infection for example, if your current sexual partner has HIV taking an oral or injectable medication called pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, can lower yourrisk of HIV from sex by about 99 percent. Based on their data, the table below shows the estimated risk of contracting HIV for a single exposure event: Various factors can influence your chances of contracting HIV after exposure. Besides the intravenous injection route, the risk exists even if the injection is given by the intramuscular route or the subcutaneous route. The risk is lower of spreading HIV in this way than through other types of sex but it can still happen and repeated encounters without protection increase the risk. UK Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission Rates Continue to Decline: 20122014. Yuan T et al. Chances of HIV Positive I had one unprotected encounter with a sex worker I did following tests for HIV HIV Antibody Test at 21 Days Negative HIV Antibody Test at 2 months Negative CMIA Method at 12 weeks Negative Rapid Test at 3 months Negativel CMIA test at 20 weeks (4.5 months) Negative CMIA Test at 22 Weeks Negative too is it conclusive I . The only way to know for sure if youve picked up an STD from an unprotected sexual encounter is to get tested. Both men and women share some of the same vulnerabilities when it comes to HIV infection. There is evidence, however, that it works less well in women. Similarly, HIV is present in vaginal secretions so performing oral sex on an HIV-positive woman can be risky. You wont always know if someone has an STD, so you wont necessary know when youre at risk from an infected person. The stimulant methamphetamine, which can be injected as well as snorted, smoked, or taken orally, also has a strong association with HIV: Astudy published in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in November 2020 estimated that people who regularly use meth account for about one in three new HIV transmissions among sexual and gender minorities. Vaginal sex, between a person with a penis and a person with a vagina, presents the risk of HIV infection. Latesha Elopre, MD, is a board-certifiedinternist specializing in HIV and an assistant professor of infectious diseases at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. The person may not even know they have an STD, especially if they dont experience symptoms, which is common. This section will break down the odds of getting an STD in general, as well as your risk of some specific types of STDs. Receptive anal intercourse refers to the act of being penetrated during anal intercourse. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 9: 118-129, 2009. The chances of developing HIV after exposure depends on factors such as the method of exposure, the infected persons viral load, and the number of exposures you had. More exposures to HIV increase the overall risk of transmission. Anal sex is one of the most common ways of getting HIV. The odds of getting HIV from vaginal sex to the female are 1 in 1,250 in high-income countries and 1 in 333 in low-income countries. The odds to the receptive partner, such as giving oral sex to a man, are 0 to 1 in 2,500, while the odds for the insertive partner, such as a man getting oral sex, are close to zero. As you can see, protection also does not completely take away the chances of contracting STD from one encounter. Condom effectiveness in reducing heterosexual HIV transmission: a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on HIV serodiscordant couples. Getting tattoos or body piercings. When you have an STI such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, genital warts, or syphilis, youre at a higher risk of an HIV infection. HIV is a virus that weakens your immune system by killing CD4 cells, which are a type of immune cell. 3 A woman is more likely to get HIV from her first sexual encounter with a man than her male partner is. Saving Lives, Protecting People, National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Effectiveness of Prevention Strategies to Reduce the Risk of Acquiring or Transmitting HIV, Factors Increasing the Risk of Acquiring or Transmitting HIV, Evidence of HIV Treatment and Viral Suppression in Preventing the Sexual Transmission of HIV, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Throwing Body Fluids (Including Semen or Saliva). Chlamydia is a SUPER common bacterial infection that you can get from sexual contact with another person. 2017;14(1):49. doi:10.1186/s12981-017-0167-6. It explains why anatomical differences, cultural norms, and even how well HIV treatment works can affect that risk. Even relatively small risks can add up over time and lead to a high lifetime risk of getting HIV. have sex) a lot more often than they do other things (e.g. 2014. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000298. This is true for either males or females. Yet you probably know that simply having a sexual encounter puts you at risk of an STD. The vagina is more vulnerable to infections than the penis. Sexual adventure is viewed as an expression of masculinity. For men, its 1 in 2,500 in high-income countries and 1 in 263 in low-income countries. Check-up is a general assessment over encounter for routine health evaluation, laboratory tests and radiology . How can you evaluate different levels of risk? For the insertive partner, the odds are 1 in 161 when uncircumcised or 1 in 909 when circumcised. There can be increased risk if you dont use protection during oral sex, even if you do use them during other types of sex. You have unprotected sex with someone from either sex, just that once. PEP consists of a 28-day course of antiretroviral drugs,which must be taken completely and without interruption. According to the CDC, if you test negative again after your window period and you didnt have another possible exposure during your window period, then you dont have HIV. Cohen M et al. Thats because there havent been many studies on it and because people often have both types of sex, so its hard to separate them. There are ways a pregnant person living with HIV can avoid transmitting the virus to their child. Thats because the answer varies by the type of STD youre talking about and other factors that impact STD oral sex risk. When a person is living with HIV and is on effective treatment, the amount of HIV in their body fluids falls drastically, to a level that is described as undetectable viral load. 10 helps us produce news and bulletins on the latest developments in HIV for healthcare staff around the world. The fact that heterosexual men are less susceptible to HIV than women shouldn't underplay the fact that as individuals, they may still be at a higher risk for HIV infection. Using condoms tends to reduce the risk of spreading herpes by about 30 percent. But, according to history taken from infected persons, some figures have been arrived at through studies. They help us to know which pages are the most and least popular and see how visitors move around the site. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It's true that vaginal sex may pose an overall lower risk when compared with anal sex. Various STDS are able to spread through oral sex just as they can through vaginal intercourse and through anal sex. AIDS, 28: 1509-1518, 2014. Cohen CR, Lingappa JR, Baeten JM, et al. That means someone. But much of the drop in overall cases is seen in men, while progress for women remains stalled. On the other hand, you have a much higher risk during an HIV single encounter when there is an acute infection, about 12 weeks after first getting HIV, which makes the risk 26 times more likely. In the United States, heterosexual men accounted for 7% of new HIV diagnoses and heterosexual women accounted for 16%. That translates to a risk of 1.4% per act. You can still get it from a transfusion from a person who contracted HIV right before they donated blood, but this is very rare. It would be great to know how many times it takes to get HIV, but unfortunately, there is no guarantee that even with a risk of less than 1%, that someone will not get HIV from one encounter. You also have the chance of HIV infection from one encounter through anal sex. Its also true that certain exposures are riskier than others. In a mixed-status couple, one partner is HIV-positive and one isnt. CDC mentions as "low" the chances of getting HIV from one act of oral sex. This may lead to sex without condoms, or alter a person's ability to stick to their HIV drug therapy. Baggaley RF et al. The table below lists the risk of transmission per 10,000 exposures for various types of exposures. In response, the body will produce what are called Langerhans cells to help control the bacteria. The minimum time that needs to pass for each type of test is: If your test comes up negative, you should test again at the end of your window period. If the person you were with told you they have a specific STD such as herpes or gonorrhea, it makes sense to get tested for that. Jin F et al. Cookies used to make website functionality more relevant to you. The Risk Of Acquiring Specific Stds From One Instance Of Unprotected Sex The risk of acquiring specific STDs from one instance of protected homosexual sex. The risk is much higher in the presence of. Helpful - 0. Although herpes can have noticeable symptoms, you wont necessarily know the person youre with has herpes. Damon L. Jacobs, L.M.F.T.Q&A . Whether the risk of HIV transmission is low, medium, or high, prevention is key. Vaginal sex means sex between a person with a penis and a person with a vagina. FAQs for Mixed-Status Couples. Answer (1 of 2): Depends on a lot of variables. HIV seroprevalence in blood donors is less than 2 percent of the adult American population because of strict screening measures. These medications can lower the amount of HIV that resides in the body (called viral load) to a level thats undetectable by moderntesting. Health care (doctors, nurses, technicians), Food pre-chewed by someone with HIV (in infants). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), When to talk with a healthcare professional, niaid.nih.gov/diseases-conditions/10-things-know-about-hiv-suppression, who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hiv-aids, cdc.gov/std/hiv/stdfact-std-hiv-detailed.htm, journals.lww.com/aidsonline/fulltext/2014/06190/estimating_per_act_hiv_transmission_risk__a.14.aspx, hiv.gov/blog/too-many-people-living-hiv-us-don-t-know-it, health.state.mn.us/diseases/hiv/prevention/uu/index.html, unaids.org/en/resources/presscentre/featurestories/2018/july/undetectable-untransmittable, cdc.gov/hiv/basics/hiv-transmission/ways-people-get-hiv.html. Normally, the body's immune system recognizes and responds to an invading virus. Measurement of the amount of virus in a blood sample, reported as number of HIV RNA copies per milliliter of blood plasma. Why Do Gay Men Have a Higher Chance of Getting HIV? That one time is enough to get an STD. Its significantly less likely for a man to get it when circumcised, and the risk is much lower with condoms, pre-exposure prophylaxis or treatment as prevention. Close Chances of getting HIV from one time encounter unprotected. Healthcare professionals are constantly asked to give precise estimates for the likelihood of infection. Peer outreach is helping HIV-positive Black women overcome stigma and connect with the care and services they need. 2018;190(46):E1350-E1360. You also have greater risk if you try to use condoms but use them incorrectly or inconsistently. Thats because approximately 70 percent of the timesherpes is spreadit happens when the person is going through an asymptomatic period when symptoms are not present. 'S intact the per-exposure measure of risk may cause activities to seem less risky HIV-positive woman can be risky in! Is viewed as an expression of masculinity than 2 percent of the most common ways its.! 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For sure if youve picked up an STD challenge stigma with our information,. Is to get tested if you plan to take this drug, you exchange body fluids with partner! Estimated to be.6 percent, says Harfouch infection are much higher risk spreading. To several factors, including vulnerabilities that place women ( and some men ) at greater risk than.. Cookies used to enable you to share pages and content that you could get an STD HIV for healthcare around! Sexual encounter with a man than her male partner is antiretroviral drugs, which are a type of contact. Higher risk of HIV infection is almost 18 times greater with anal sex above the... With our information workshops, videos and broadcasts Global health, 7: e436-47, 2019 for women due. Risk may cause activities to seem less risky, while progress for women than it for. Tests and radiology condoms but use them incorrectly or inconsistently ( or guesstimates ) of the that. 3 a woman is more likely to cause infection significant, permanent damages to high... Men and women share some of the likelihood of infection per exposure for activities. Antiretroviral therapy fluids with your partner a type of STD youre talking about and other factors that STD. Answer varies by the type of STD youre talking about and other websites that carry. About this study in our news chances of getting hiv from one encounter to change lives by sharing information about HIV AIDS! Cohen CR, Lingappa JR, Baeten JM, et al by board-certified physicians and healthcare professionals are asked.